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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is acute inflammation of pulmonary parenchyma (parts of lungs involved in gas transfer)

Classification Of Pneumonia
•Community acquired pneumonia is in community
•Health care : nursing home, dialysis center, chemotherapy
•Hospital :- Hospital acquired pneumonia is acquired in hospital.If 48-72 hours Pneumonia patient is admission in hospital then it’s acquired in hospital
•Post operative pneumonia
•Aspiration Pneumonia
•Bronchopneumonia ( inflammation of lungs, arising in the brochi
Clinical Features Symptoms
• Fever
• Malaise (physical disorders)
• Anorexia (eating disorders)
• Headache
Signs
• Fever
• Tachypnoea ( rapid breathing)
• Cyanosis
• Hypotension ( Blood Pressure Low )
• Confusion
Causes
1)Bacterial• Streptococcus Pneumonia
2) Viruses
• Influenza
• Para Influenza
• Measles
Risk Factors• Smoking
• Alcoholism
• Asthma
• Liver Disease
Investigation(A)Chest X-ray
Finding:-
    • Consolidation
    • Pleural Effusion ( Water on the lungs)
    • Lobar or multi Lobar infiltration
(B)Blood Test
•Full blood count
•Urea, electrolyte,creatine
•Liver Function Tests
•C-reactive protein
•Blood culture and sensitivity

(C)Sputum :- For microscopey

Figure credit : www.wikipedia.org @wikipedia

Management [ Investigation + Treatment ]
•Oxygen Inhalation to maintain PaO2 > 8kpa
Antibiotic required currently recommended in uncomplicated and sever community acquired pneumonia.
Uncomplicated
•Amoxicillin 500mg X 8hours X orally
Instead of penicillin
•Clarithromycin 500mg X 12 hours X orally
   OR
•Erythromycin 500mg X 6 hours X orally
If Staphylococcus is culture or suspected
•Flucloxacillin 1-2gm 6-hourly iv. Plus
•Clarithromycin 500mg 6 hourly orally
If  Mycoplasma is suspected
•Clarithromycin 500 mg 12 hourly orally or iv. Plus
•Rifampicin 600 mg 12 hourly iv in sever cases
Sever community acquired pneumoniaClarithromycin 500 mg X 12 hourly iv or
•Erythromycin 500 mg X 6 hourly iv plus
•Co-amoxiclav 1.2gm X 8 hourly iv plus or
•Cefuroxime 1.5gm X 8 hourly iv or
•Amoxicillin 1gm 6- hourly plus
•Flucloxacillin 2gm 6 hourly iv
Streptococcus pneumoniae:Inj. Benzyl penicillin 1-2gm 6 hourlyComplications Of Pneumonia
•Para Pneumonia Effusion
•Empyema
•Lobar collapse due to retention of sputum
•Pneumothorax
•Lung abscess
•Renal Failure
•Respiratory Failure

PDF OF PNEUMONIA IS HERE 

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